Communication and Related Services
"Communication is the essence of human life."
The Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) defines a speech or language impairment as "a communication disorder, such as stuttering, impaired articulation, a language impairment, or a voice impairment, that adversely affects a child’s educational performance" (34 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] § 300.8(c)).
Rule 6A-6.03012, F.A.C., specifies that a speech impairment interferes with communication, adversely affects a student’s performance and/or functioning in the educational environment, and results in the need for ESE. A speech impairment is not primarily the result of factors related to age, gender, culture, ethnicity, or limited English proficiency. Three types of speech impairment are a speech sound disorder, voice disorder, and fluency disorder:
Speech Sound Disorder – A speech sound disorder is a phonological or articulation disorder that is evidenced by the atypical production of speech sounds characterized by substitutions, distortions, additions, or omissions that interfere with intelligibility. A speech sound disorder is not primarily the result of factors related to chronological age, gender, culture, ethnicity, or limited English proficiency. • Phonological disorder – A phonological disorder is an impairment in the system of phonemes and phoneme patterns within the context of spoken language. • Articulation disorder – An articulation disorder is characterized by difficulty in the articulation of speech sounds that may be due to a motoric or structural problem.
Fluency Disorder – A fluency disorder is characterized by deviations in continuity, smoothness, rhythm, or effort in spoken communication. It may be accompanied by excessive tension and secondary behaviors, such as struggle and avoidance. A fluency disorder is not primarily the result of factors related to chronological age, gender, culture, ethnicity, or limited English proficiency.
Voice Disorder – A voice disorder is characterized by the atypical production or absence of vocal quality, pitch, loudness, resonance, or duration of phonation that is not primarily the result of factors related to chronological age, gender, culture, ethnicity, or limited English proficiency. Parents of children not yet attending school may contact Child Find if there are concerns with hearing, speech or language development.
Rule 6A-6.030121(1), F.A.C., specifies that a language impairment interferes with communication, adversely affects performance and/or functioning in the student’s typical learning environment, and results in the need for ESE. A language impairment is a disorder in one or more of the basic learning processes involved in understanding or in using spoken or written language. These include: • Phonology: the sound systems of a language and the linguistic conventions of a language that guide the sound selection and sound combinations used to convey meaning; • Morphology: the system that governs the internal structure of words and the construction of word forms; • Syntax: the system governing the order and combination of words to form sentences, and the relationships among the elements within a sentence; • Semantics: the system that governs the meanings of words and sentences; and • Pragmatics: the system that combines language components in functional and socially appropriate communication. A language impairment may manifest in significant difficulties affecting listening comprehension, oral expression, social interaction, reading, writing, or spelling. A language impairment is not primarily the result of factors related to chronological age, gender, culture, ethnicity, or limited English proficiency.